to refuse the request for payment by the seller
to pay under reserve to the seller
to pay against indemnity from the seller.
It is easy for a bank to refuse to pay against non-confirming documents but this will have negative consequences especially if the seller is a valued customer of the bank. Therefore, banks do negotiate documents against an indemnity from the seller. The bank’s decision to negotiate the documents against an indemnity is dependent mainly upon evaluation of the credit risk of its customer. When negotiating documents against indemnity, the discrepancies in the documents are listed in bank’s standard indemnity form and executed by the seller. By doing so, the seller has full knowledge and aware of the discrepancies, possibility of rejection by the issuing bank and his obligation to refund the negotiating bank in the event the issuing bank refuses to take up the documents and pay the negotiating bank.